Leverage periph to write Go applications

The complete API documentation, including examples, are at:


periph is designed to be a package leveraged to abstract OSes and boards differences to write an app once, run anywhere. It uses a driver registry to efficiently load the relevant drivers on the board and OS it is running on. It differentiates between drivers that enable functionality on the host and drivers for devices connected to the host.

Most micro computers expose at least some of the following: I²C bus, SPI bus, GPIO pins, analog pins, UART, I2S and PWM.

Note: not all of the above is implemented yet!

  • The interfaces are defined in conn.
  • The concrete objects implementing the interfaces are in host.
  • The device drivers using these interfaces are located in devices.

A device can be connected on a bus, let’s say an LED strip connected over SPI. In this case the application needs to obtain a handle to the SPI bus and then connect the LED device driver to the SPI bus handle.

Compatibility guarantee

periph follows SemVer compatibility guarantee:

  • Major version change (v1.0 to v2.0) may introduce breaking changes.
  • Minor version change (v1.1 to v1.2) will be backward compatible.


The function to initialize the drivers registered by default is host.Init(). It returns a driverreg.State:

state, err := host.Init()

driverreg.State contains information about:

  • The drivers loaded and active.
  • The drivers skipped, because the relevant hardware wasn’t found.
  • The drivers that failed to load due to an error. The app may still run without these drivers.

In addition, host.Init() may return an error when there’s a structural issue, for example two drivers with the same name were registered. This is a fatal failure. The package periph/host registers all the drivers under it.


A connection conn.Conn is a point-to-point connection between the host and a device where the application is the master driving the I/O.

A Conn can be multiplexed over the underlying bus. For example an I²C bus i2c.Bus may have multiple connections (slaves) to the master, each addressed by the device address.

SPI connection

An spi.Conn is a conn.Conn. The reason is that spi.Conn is locked on a specific CS line, so it is effectively treated as a point-to-point connection and not as a bus.

I²C connection

An i2c.Bus is not a conn.Conn. This is because an I²C bus is not a point-to-point connection but instead is a real bus where multiple devices can be connected simultaneously, like a USB bus. To create a point-to-point connection to a device which does implement conn.Conn use i2c.Dev, which embeds the device’s address:

// Open the first available I²C bus:
bus, _ := i2creg.Open("")
// Address the device with address 0x76 on the I²C bus:
dev := i2c.Dev{bus, 0x76}
// This is now a point-to-point connection and implements conn.Conn:
var _ conn.Conn = &dev

Since many devices have their address hardcoded, it’s up to the device driver to specify the address.


GPIO pins can be leveraged for arbitrary uses, such as buttons, LEDs, relays, etc.


See device/ for various examples.

Using out-of-tree drivers

Out of tree drivers can be seamlessly loaded by an application. The example below shows a hypothetical driver located at that exposes an I²C bus over a REST API to a remote device.

This driver can be used with periph as if it were built into periph as follows:

package main

import (


type driverImpl struct{}

func (d *driverImpl) String() string          { return "virtual_i2c" }
func (d *driverImpl) Prerequisites() []string { return nil }
func (d *driverImpl) After() []string { return nil }

func (d *driverImpl) Init() (bool, error) {
    // Load the driver. Note that drivers are loaded *concurrently* by periph.
    if err := virtual_i2c.Load(); err != nil {
        return true, err
    err := i2c.Register("foo", 10, func() (i2c.BusCloser, error) {
        // You may have to create a struct to convert the API:
        return virtual_i2c.Open()
    // If this Init() function returns an error, it will be in the state
    // returned by host.Init():
    return true, err

func main() {
    // Register your driver in the registry:
    if _, err := driverreg.Register(driver); err != nil {
    // Initialize normally. Your driver will be loaded:
    if _, err := host.Init(); err != nil {

    bus, err := i2creg.Open("1")
    if err != nil {
    defer bus.Close()

    // Use your bus driver like if it had been provided by periph.